When I look at the night sky on a clear night, we can see the canvas of incredible darkness that is sprinkled with countless distant lights of the dazzling stars. How did the fire star – and where do they come from? The first stars that destroyed the ancient primordial darkness of the universe, were mysterious on the & # 39 objects, which are responsible for most of our existence – we would not be here if it was not the first stars forged literally all atomic elements heavier than helium in their hot form. , Fire heart. The iron in our blood, the calcium in our bones, the oxygen that we breathe, the water we n & # 39; eat sand under our feat, and carbon, which is the basis of life on Earth – all of this was created by the stars. their party forged fresh, heavy, life-sustaining elements shouted into space when they "died" after being burned hydrogen fuel needed. In May 2019, astronomers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, announced new findings that instead of flying in the area, thought to scientists, the ancient asymmetric supernova explosions may be responsible for planting bright new children's star, made possible life on Earth, and no matter where it was life in the cosmos.
A few hundred million years after the Big Bang the universe, which is believed to have occurred about 13.8 billion years ago, the very first generation of stars lit up, illuminating the universe as a giant shiny balls of hydrogen and helium. The nuclei of these first hot first-born stars extremes thermonuclear reaction creating the first batch of heavy elements, including carbon, iron and zinc.
It is assumed that the first stars were probably gigantic spherical balls that quickly lived and died young. The more stars; the shorter its life. Massive stars burn their fuel faster than their smaller star brothers and sisters, because they are much more hot. Thus, they live only for millions of years, while their less hefty relative shines billion – or even trillions– years on hydrogen combustion the main sequence with Gertsprung-Russell diagram of stellar evolution. Astrophysicists have for many years believed that these ancient, massive stars explode as supernovae is similar to spherical.
However, a team of astronomers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other institutions have now discovered that these first stars may have blown themselves up in a much more powerful and asymmetric explosion, throwing in the jet space, which had been hard enough to throw heavy atomic elements in a neighboring galaxy . These newly forged elements – the first such in the ancient cosmos – is a valuable seed for the second generation of stars, some of which even today can be seen clearly dancing in our universe.
In a research paper published in my room 8 2019 Astrophysical journal, Sitsysty reported a large number of zinc JAN 1327-2326Who & # 39 with an ancient stellar survivors, who & # 39 is one of the stars of the second generation of the universe. They believe that the star was able to obtain only such a rich amount of zinc as a result of asymmetric supernova explosion that foreshadowed the "death" of one of the very first stars that populated the primordial cosmos. Now extinct, brief, a star of the first generation enriched the natal gas cloud youngest stars of the second generation of forged fresh batch of heavy atomic elements.
"When a star explodes, what proportion of this star is sucked into a black hole, like a vacuum cleaner. Only if you have some kind of mechanism, like a jet that can pull out the material, you can watch this stuff later generations of stars. And we believe that it is here could happen ", – explained Dr. Anna Frebel my 8 2019 MIT press release. Dr. Frebel – associate professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and a member of MIT & # 39; s Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research Cowley.
"This is the first observational evidence that this asymmetric supernova occurred in the early universe This changes our understanding of how the first stars exploded." – commented Dr. Sooner Ezdeddin, who & # 39 is a doctor at MIT and lead author research.
The first generation of stars was not like the stars that we see today. This is because the first stellar generation was born directly from pristine hydrogen and helium – the most two light atomic elements in a familiar Periodic Table. And hydrogen and helium were born in the Big Bang (Nukleasintez Big Bang). It is believed that the first stars were gigantic and extremely shiny, and their existence has changed our universe from the fact that he It was where it is now is.
There are three generations of stars. Our Sun is a & # 39; I is a member of the population, which means that it is a & # 39; is a member of the younger generation of stellar. Star III population – the most ancient, and they formed a pristine gas that lingered after the Big Bang. In the parlance of astronomers called all the atomic elements heavier than helium metals. so the term metal, how astronomers use different from the same period, if it is used by chemists. Stars Population II – is the star that bombarded the population between I and III. These stars are older than our Sun's population, but under the first stars of population III. The first stars were exhausted from the metal, but the star population II showed the following amounts of metals forged in the hearts of hot stars Population III. Population I stars, like our Sun, has the greatest metal content. However, the accurate classification is somewhat misleading. This is because all Stars, regardless of their generation are roller balls consisting mainly of the hydrogen gas.
because metals It can be made only by the process star nukleasintez, the existence of even a trace metals It suggests that the earlier population of stars must exist before a & # 39 came into being stars of the second population. there had tp have a population of stars that existed before them, to make them metals. Star III population, which no longer exists in the visible universe, the chemical left "traces" in generations of stars which followed them, and the star "traces" talk about what has already disappeared aboriginal population of the ancient generation of stars.
Astronomers refer to the stars about the population (I am tall) metal content) or population II (Low metal content). However, because even the most metal-neblaga Population II stars sport a small amount metalsthey discover that they contain more than just the original primordial gas formed during the birth of the universe in the Big Bang. Star giants III population consisted only of the first-born light gases hydrogen, helium and lithium quantities. Thus, a gas consisting of star population III, was not "dirty" heavy metals forged in the hot hearts of former stars. Population III stars triggered a gradual increase in the star metalichnasts in an increasingly young and young stars.
It is usually assumed that the stars were born population in the clean gas wheelchair uncomplicated. Digital computer & # 39; computer simulations shed light on a very ancient and mysterious process of formation of stars and a very short life span of the first stars. Giant Star III population did not go gently into that good night, and they noisily blew themselves to pieces brilliant supernova explosions, dropping out of stock of the newly formed metals howling loudly in the space between the stars. This made newborns heavier atomic elements that could be included in a giant cold, dark molecular clouds gas and dust that serve the country nurseries for later generations metal-rich stars.
As the first stars were so massive, they quickly used the required reserve of pristine hydrogen gas – and then blew themselves to pieces, which may have been unusually strong, shiny and hard supernovae. Population III stars burned in the relatively young age of the stellar standards. These ancient supernovae were largely responsible for the fact that has caused significant changes in the universe. These star dazzle really changed the dynamics of the universe, warming it. This new heat iyanizavala surrounding gas.
Lingering legacy of the First Stars
Dr. Frebel found tales star, dubbed JAN 1327-2326, In 2005. At the time, the star took the title itself metal-zlachynnaya star known. This means that there have been very low concentration of elements heavier for hydrogen and helium, which means that it is population II star. JAN 1327-2326 was born at a time when most of the universe heavy metals It has not been tampered with.
"The first stars were so massive that they had to explode almost immediately. Smaller stars formed in the second generation, are available today, and they retain the earlier materials that remain in these first stars. Our star just chucking elements heavier than hydrogen and helium so we know what he might have formed a part of the second generation of stars, "explained Dr. Frebel my 8 2019 MIT press release.
"People thought of earlier observations that the first stars were not so bright and energetic, and when they exploded, they would not participate in the re-implementation of the universe. We are in a sense correct this picture and show, perhaps, the first stars were when they OMV exploded enough, and perhaps now they & # 39 is a strong competitor for the contribution to reiyanizatsyyu and chaos in their small dwarf galaxies, "- said Dr. Frebel.
The first supernovae, which announced the explosive death of the first stars could also be powerful enough to shoot them a new party formed heavy metals the next "virgin galaxy", which still had to give birth to their own stars.
Dr. Frebel went on to explain that "Once you have some heavier elements in hydrogen and helium gas, you are much more convenient to form stars, especially small ones. The working hypothesis is that, perhaps, the second generation of stars formed in these contaminated. virgin system, not in the same system as the supernova explosion itself, and it is always something that we are not supposed to be thinking differently. Thus, it opens up a new channel for early star formation. "