Climbing the narrow, Krylova lane and stepped on the soft seat tandem, double, covered with blue and yellow fabric open cockpit Boeing PT-17 Stearman registered N55171 in Stow, Massachusetts, I fell into place with the help of two reference edges of the upper edge of the wing and attached olive-green waist and shoulder harnesses. Donning goggles and helmet required for the era, I looked completely duplicated to a devices and has prepared himself as a battlefield surveillance aircraft Massachusetts and a short, though temporary, return to heaven basic flight training of the Second World War.
Styrman Boeing PT-17 originates in the project samafinansavanaga design project, intended for military purposes. Just starting to see a glimmer of light at the end of the Great Depression, the tunnel and still survived only in the manufacture of parts and components for other aircraft, primarily for aircraft Boeing B247, a twin-engine airliner, Stearman Aircraft Company believes that its future could provide only a military structure.
Investing their own money in 1933 it changed the Model 6 Cloudboy, earlier aircraft Lloyd Styrmana presenting new circular cross-section of the fuselage, similar to that used in the model 80, another Stearman design, providing only the lower wing ailerons, with integrated cantilever rack and installing a new tail with adjustable trims on the rear edge of its elevators. The model 70, she first arrived from Wichita, Kansas, January 1, 1934, powered devyatsitsylindravym, 210-hp., Radial engines Lycoming R-680, which turned out to be robust, reliable and well-suited to a strict training regiment with the ability to tolerate the aerobatic maneuvers, which have often been young drivers. Although he has demonstrated excellent management performance during a demonstration flight in the air, and the Army Corps of Naval Fleet of the United States in Dayton, Anakostsii and Pensacola, it almost docile response to stalls proved inadequate to carry out the planned; as a result of the installation of triangular stall strips, made of wood, on the lower wings sur & # 39; ozna interrupted airflow at high angles of attack and eliminate the flaw.
In May 1934 the Navy to be more interested in it, I ordered 41 aircraft, as well as spare parts for the version with a radial engine of 200 hp. Wright J5 called Model 73, but is designed NS-1 for the IUD. The first production aircraft was deployed in December of the same year.
A modified version, which includes a new main landing gear, and vice versa operates at 225-liters. S. Wright R-760 and the same power, devyatsitsylindravym radial engine Lycoming R-680, was developed by the summer and was sent to the Army Corps of air. . If next year the funding was allocated, Air Army Corps issued their own specifications Stearman airlines, resulting in an order for 20, as well as parts for Lycoming version designated Model X75, but called the PT-13 for the army operation.
Double basic training biplane identical to both operators, except for some minor functions, includes a rectangular welded steel fuselage, which was covered with metal panels on the front portion and the fabric at the stern and dismissed stop 25, the total length of ¼ inch. Monosyllabic unevenly spaced, chess upper and lower wings using NACA 2213 wing section were constructed with a laminated lapnikom carriages and ribs. The central section of its upper wing carried by steel bearing tubes, the substituted wire, while pamizhplanavyya steel pipe type "N" was carried out on both sides of it. Covered with a cloth, they reached the traffic on its longitudinal axis dyuralyuminavymi ailerons, mounted on the rear edge of the lower wing, and were collectively 32.2-foot span and 297.4-square-feet.
In tissue, the welded steel pipe, the rear flat ribbon and outboard vertical fin on the elevators presented plating.
Divided console chassis, wherein the radome includes a metallic, shock absorber comprises a spring with outboard rotation at each of its main noze was equipped with hydraulic brakes and adjustable tail wheel.
In a double, tandem open cockpit is a flight instructor and a student pilot and the baggage can be stored in the rear of the two enclosed compartment.
Working metal propeller with two-blade metal propeller mounted on a steel tube, radial engine which served central incision 43 galonavyya fuel tanks with 43 gallons and chetyrehkolonnym oil gallon in the United States, installed in the engine compartment of the aircraft with an empty weight of 1936 pounds and eight weight 2717 pounds can rise at a speed of 840 feet per minute and reached a maximum speed of 124 miles / hr and overhead ceiling 11 200 feet. Range of motion was 505 miles. Cruise speed, at 65 percent capacity, was 106 miles / hour and landing speed – 52 miles compliant.
The momentum of the Second World War, and in parallel, and dictates the production of the aircraft. Increased demand in the military in the early coaches brought in about $ 243.578 26 PT-13A to the Army Air Corps and 150,383 dollars to 20 for the Navy, and the next – $ 3 million for the PT-third 13B represents the highest in the history of Stearman and demanded the expansion of its plant and increasing the number of labor force in 1000 to the current record.
Besides the US, the design equally had foreign application. For example, 76D1 model had 9-power cylinder 320 hp bilobed, steering motor Pratt and Whitney R-985-T1B, try.30 caliber machine guns, two-way radio, and floats, and ten were originally ordered Argentine fleet. 73L3 model, which has an engine Lycoming R-680-4 to 225 hp, flew to the Philippines, but the plane also saw service in Brazil.
Indeed, until 1940, Stearman produced a simulator type PT-13, every 90 minutes, and the momentum, when he was in motion, was not regulated. June 25 the same year, the Navy signed a contract worth 3.8 million dollars with 212-liter units L2 R-680-8-powered N2S-2s and -5s, which led to another factory expansion to 40,000 square feet. By August, 1,100 employees worked two eight-hour shifts six days a week, and next month in 1400 worked around the clock in three eight-hour shifts daily.
Aircraft that have ended, crossed or Air Corps Army & # 39; base at Randolph Field in Texas or Navy in Pensakola, Florida.
To avoid production delays due to engine unavailability, Stearman produced two padversii. The first of these, PT-17, characterized by the tense air from the engine frame 300 hp, while he worked with standard syamitsylindravym radially Continental R-670-5 to 220 horsepower, and the second – PT- 18 was manufactured KS-225. Jacobs R-755. However, only 150 were built last. Both of & # 39 appeared in 1940.
March 15 next year, the Army Air Corps took delivery of the 1000th primary flight trainer in Vici, a single project Stearman, who has never reached such a production. But the main stages, which are caused by the war, quickly established only five months later, on August 27 2000th aircraft PT-17 was delivered to the Army Air Corps. This rate of production only the labor force increases can be kept the same, zatsmivshy 3,000 in April and 5,000 in June.
In September 1941, the aviation company Stearman, which has since become the "division of Boeing", the first time to liquidate the name Stearman, just remodeled "The aviation company Boeing, Wichita Division".
The basic construction was as civilian applications according to the approved standard certificate № 743, which was issued June 6, at the 1941 model A75L3, equivalent Lithuanian PT-13 capacity of 225 hp and A75N1 model, Continental R 220 hp -670 analogue. Types that are simultaneously produced on existing military production lines were sold to Park Air College in Illinois, one of the operators of civil pilot training program in Peru, as A75N1.
By December 1941 the frame was completed every 60 – 70 minutes.
Other specialized version, PT-27, was modified Continental engine for arctic temperatures with the cockpit canopy hood for instrument flight device's electrical system and landing lights. Of the 300 orders the Royal Canadian Air Force 287 were returned between December 1942 and June 1943 for non-fulfillment of the necessary modifications after delivery, which makes them unsuitable for thermal operations at zero temperature.
If in 1945 the war ended, the division of "Boeing" has produced 8584 Wichita flight trainers, or 44 percent of all coaches in the summer. Nevertheless, more than a year after the closure of the production line it has received an order for 24 N2S-4 with the People's Republic of China. Two of these aircraft – one with serial number 37902, which was first staged 31 October 1942 and registered 1564 hours, and one with serial number 55759, which was delivered July 20, 1943 and has flown 1116 hours. located in Clinton, Oklahoma, and after major repair and installation of six-cylinder Lycoming O-435-II was sent May 23, 1947 They were later joined by 20 kontynentalnyh R-670- 4 220 hp with N2S-third power
Total Stearman produced 11 major versions of the main trainers for the Army and Navy.
On the dashboard PT-17 Massachusetts situated below slender windshield exhibited a compass direction vertical speed indicator, air speed indicator (in miles per hour), the rotation and height indicator vyshynyametr, clock, external air pressure gauge and oil and the fuel pressure (in pounds per square inch), mataryyny propeller (in revolutions per minute) and the flow switch the gas tank, the latter for "left", "right" or "off". Draselnyya engine valves and mixtures placed on the left side of the wall, and the steering wheel and brake pedal were on the floor, a little at my feet.
Continental discloses a radial engine 220 hp, which is supplied with 46-galonavaga fuel tank, and properly initiated improved control throttle and mixture filling the frame with an air capacity perspective since its spraying, smoking, screw-avge ryhinga. It rotates in sliding, bathed in the horizontal stabilizer, instantly causing the stick between my legs spinning in the same position at the rear.
Responding to its advanced reactor, Stearman moved under the radiant southern sun, parallel Asabel river, turning right, and performing a complete engine start, directed towards the well-groomed, chamfered, 2300-meter field of the field, which would directly serve its runway . In the end, it was the Second World War.
Napravlyayuchysya forward under its own power and vyravnavayuchysya with grass field, PT-17, was bitten by the wind with fully advanced reactors, raising tail, rising before unleashing two main wheels are rotating at a speed of 60 km / h and overcome the trees on the perimeter of the field in the rising, turn left at 550 feet.
Green carpet, blue lake topography of Massachusetts, without interference in the crystal-blue June sky 80 degrees, retreated below me.
Walking 1,200 feet when the lifting speed of 600 feet per minute and 72 miles / hr, indicating the air velocity, biplane registering reading 1800 revolutions per minute at its bladed propellers, moved over a plurality of reflective lake lakes. Stowe field is now reduced to indistinguishable green carpet.
Predetermined, energetic signal tremor stick same helmet and close the pilot behind me, whose presence could visually check a tiny mirror, mounted in the upper part of the wing on the lower side, pointed to the flying arms and touch my helmet confirmed its recognition.
Shelf between my legs, the only side control means (Krokowa) and longitudinal (roll) axis aircraft, led to my destiny and direction to a single channel and bombed from all sides, unobstructed wind, I made a new freedom, which overshadowed how limited earthly limitation and descriptive adjectives.
Maintaining 240 degrees to the southwest, driving over the Hudson River with the air speed of 80 km / min, I sent to the nose still fuzzy outlines of mountains Vachuset silhouette which rose above the horizon, is now an isolated own world, disconnected from civilization. Earth and even the driver behind me in a harmonious, merging with the soul of the universe. Isolated, nowhere to cling to, whether it's physical location or a negative emotion, the soul always end up there again to its autonomous status. If this state could only be a constant …
Going to the south, the 180-degree direction over Marlbara, I passed the reservoir Sudbury, the upper and lower wing, erected under the & # 39; lift to take me to 1800 feet at a speed of 90 km / h, while motor fuel drank 11 liters per hour. -gadinnaya thirst.
Pressing the left stick pushed in PT-17 to east travel and for Savbara Fremingemam toward Boston, its pressure in the motor was 75 psi.
Most of the training of civil and military pilots of World War II occurred in the same plane that I flew.
In an effort to fill a large need for the university students to 20 000 trainee pilots a year, in December 1938, President Roosevelt signed a bill to create a training program for civilian pilots, which pilots are already armed with a sufficient number of hours of the civil school, which will be qualified to complete training at air bases for the army and navy airplanes PT-13, PT-17 and N2S Stearman. To remedy the two major drawbacks of insufficient inclusion in the curriculum of the art military flight techniques and the original duty to serve in the armed forces immediately after graduating from high school, primary school program in which the Civil Aviation Authority for the first time tested and approved civilian. flight schools were created. Specially contracted premises, staffed civilian flight instructors who themselves have had to go through pilot training at radolfskim field to "ensure uniformity of training in accordance with the practices and standards of the air corps" were provided by the curricula, textbooks, and others. Main Stearman trainers directly from the army. The first such pilots included in the program of June 1, 1939 and in December 1941 totaled 125, which were scattered over 41 schools.
However, this month has been known for the infamous attack of Pearl Harbor with an unprecedented increase in the pilot housing and combat groups. For the three months prior to this event, in the autumn, the air Army Corps drew up plans for a simultaneous fight against the German Third Reich and the Japanese Empire, assessing needs two million soldiers and 88,000 aircraft. Although training centers Army Air Corps at Randolph Field, Maxwell Field in Alabama and Moffe Fields in California were established in mid-1940, they found themselves in the event of war pitifully inadequate, as well as due to the small number of pilots. them. Since the war clouds have burst at its seams as possible to eliminate these deficiencies should not be underestimated and the projected number of required combat teams and pilots increased at a rate of rotation hours. In the two months before Germany invaded Poland, the number was 24 battle groups and 1,200 pilots a year, but when Germany invaded Norway, these figures rose to 41 and 7000. The Nazi invasion of France further strengthened the need for up to 54 and 12,000 and eventually to 84 and 39 thousand.
Other vigorous shrugging sticks showed that the time has come too quickly relinquish control, which I confirmed another signal handmade helmet, and the pilot took over the place, showing some significant maneuvers: thrown back, he called biplane. in a vertical dive, green carpet is now right in front of the windshield when he accelerated through 1200 feet, before he was arrested in the G train, which is returned to level flight.
Starting twirled the left bank, the biplane plunged 500 feet, leveling and gudevshy front of the field before returning to catch up and circled back to the left, to finally come. It seemed that clears trees at a height of 400 feet with their extended main wheel, he got up on the grass with a decrease in power of 60 km / h, biting the soft surface of your tires until deceleration is not allowed to move the tail wheel to the ground.
Wheel in a circle to the right, PT-17 Stearman applied the brakes, and I was released from the belt and shoulder harnesses, and helmets and glasses and lifted out of the pit like the seat with the help of a wing sleeve, climbing down. to the grass along the root of the wing strips.
Waiting for a passenger, my envy, took my place in another raspylyanym biplanes – a scene that may be reminiscent of "production line" student pilots who have come to expect the PT-17, the following classes in the 1940s. The aircraft is the first link in the chain of victory, provided vital training pilots who later moved to larger, more powerful and heavily armed fighters and bombers, which they eventually won the war. Першапачатковы, а часам і найменшы, аспект любой аперацыі часта аказваецца самым важным.
Вяртаючыся да сваёй машыны сярод спёкі, я б падумаў пра гэтую філасофію …