Milan Law explained

Many drivers Massachusetts thoroughly embarrassed penalties provided for by the Law Melanie tough drunk driving law, aimed at improving public safety.

October 28, 2005 in Massachusetts in the management of intoxication motion was introduced amendments to the Law "Melanie". This law essentially increased fines and penalties for violations related to the management in a drunken state, and the refusal to conduct a breathalyzer. In addition, the law imposed an immediate suspension after the failure of chemical respiratory testing and liquidated 15-day temporary licenses previously issued to the violator, who refused to conduct a breathalyzer. Since the adoption of the law of Milan the number of people arrested in Massachusetts and charged with driving under the influence of alcoholic beverages (DRC), has been increasing. According to the Massachusetts Registry of motor vehicles (RMV), a year before the adoption of the law on the Milan 13.335 people were arrested and charged with OUI. Between 28 October 2005 and 28 October 2006, the first year after the entry into force of the law Milan, the number of arrests rose to 14 048; in the second year this number increased again to 15 591. According to the RMV to the latest statistics, in the third year from the date of enactment of the law in Massachusetts Milan were arrested 16 999 people accused of AIM.

One of the goals Milan law was to convince people to take a breathalyzer, setting stringent suspension in the license for refusal to hold Breathalyzer. Suspension of licenses for failure to conduct Breathalyzer is from 6 months to life. With these long suspension many people think twice before you give up Breathalyzer.

Another component of the law requires the installation of Melanie breath alcohol interlock devices in vehicles breath repeat offender. Drivers who in his records have 2 or more DUI-board should operate only vehicles equipped with locking devices for the duration of the license for heavy periods and within two (2) years after the restoration of full licenses.

Melanie Act created the following new offenses: use or permit unlicensed operator to operate a vehicle, allowing individuals with limited ignition interlock drive a vehicle not equipped with the device, remove the device, or the lack of technical inspection device or controlled by at least two times, at least two attempts to start the vehicle with a blood alcohol level exceeding 0.02, driving without locking the ignition device under its mandate Nesanktsyyan Awana with an ignition interlock device, the supply of air samples run someone else's vehicle, DUI while driving with a suspended driver's force due to driving while intoxicated and DUI with a child 14 years or younger in the car.

Melanie law also increased the waiting period to apply for a license for serious crimes for the second offense. Now, in most cases, you need to wait a year to get a license for serious crimes at the second crime. Also increased the duration of the suspension of the license of the car with the murder of 10 to 15 years.

Given the complexity of the law, Melanie, you must deal with a qualified lawyer for you. You should hire a lawyer who knows the laws of Massachusetts in driving while intoxicated and driving licenses.

What better way to find a lawyer on the workers' compensation?

Looking for the right prosecutor for workers' compensation, which will be a good fit for you takes time. You should look for someone who has a trauma, such as workers' compensation cases. If you are injured at work, the first thing you need to do – to report the incident to your employer, and then start looking for a lawyer.

After you have reported the accident, you should notice the doctor, whether in hospital or in a doctor's office. You should inform your doctor that you are injured on the job, so it was documented. Your doctor can develop a treatment plan depending on the extent of your injuries.

Successful search for workers' compensation lawyer:

The following guidelines should help you find the right prosecutor for workers compensation in Massachusetts:

1. First, by calling the toll-free number free Bar Association of Massachusetts and asking a lawyer who specializes in compensation in your area workers.

2. Then you have to go further search on the names submitted online to determine focus their practice on workers' compensation. If you are not satisfied with the results, you can try to hold its own Internet search.

After reviewing the area of ​​expertise of lawyers provided by your Internet search, the next question you may want to consider, it is necessary to hire a lawyer a small or large company?

3. There are pros and cons when hiring a small or large law firm. This is a personal choice or preference, in any size company you feel more comfortable. Many reviews claims that hiring a lawyer in a small firm, more preferably, as they may have more time to spend on your business. You can also ask your something & # 39; w, friends or staff recommendations, although you should confirm that the legal practice specializing in workers' compensation.

4. It will be some time browsing the web sites of various lawyers. You should also look beyond the first page of your internet search. List them very expensive on the first page, it means that most of the names come from a very large law firms, as they have large advertising budget. More than likely, they will give your business one of the less experienced lawyers.

Thus, the company's consideration of the second or third page can bring you more individualized attention with a great experience.

5. The final step is to establish a free consultation or by phone, or in person to see if they suit you and your case. After that you will have enough information to make an informed decision.

By investing the time to find the right lawyer for compensation of workers of Massachusetts, it's worth it in the long run and can change the outcome of your case.

indecent exposure

Indecent exposure in Massachusetts

Laws on obscenity society to exist as long as the crime and punishment were part of the community. Around the world, there are laws that regulate and punish samaekspazitsyyu inappropriate body parts in an improper setting. In the US, indecent exposure consists of the opening of any of the genitals or other "private part" (for example, breast or buttocks) in social conditions.

What is considered indecent exposure in Massachusetts?

Despite the fact that the laws and regulations of public indecency, as a rule, consistent across the country, the punishment may Var & # 39; iravatstsa from state to state. In Massachusetts, indecent exposure vaguely defined and can be used in a variety of situations. These include:

· Deliberately exposing public genitals or private parts

· Urination

· Transition to the public without clothes

· Participation in sexual behavior in the social environment. These include sexual intercourse, oral sex or any kind of sexual activity, providing exposure of the genitals or private parts

Although it is not the only activities that can be called indecent exposure – they are some of the most common. Taking into account the opinion of the general public, you can avoid getting into a situation that police officials might consider indecent.

What punishment for indecent exposure?

In the state of Massachusetts established penalties for obscenity population. These include:

· Six months imprisonment

Fine of up to $ 200

· The combination of the two

However, the above penalties usually apply only to those who are charged with a first offense of indecent exposure. If you've committed a public indecency, most likely, your punishment will be harsher. Also, if you have committed a public indecency in front of a child or a minor, your crime can be regarded as child sexual abuse. This is due to much more serious & # 39; serious and possibly life-long consequences, depending on the act that occurred.

For more information,

Knowing that the law entails, you not only can better avoid getting into a situation that could be considered public indecency, but you can also protect your rights if you are accused of this crime. For more information on the Massachusetts law on sexual offenses and the law on public indecency, or to learn more about your legal rights, visit the website of the prosecutor of Massachusetts on sexual crimes James Pudryly today.

How to get CNA certification in Massachusetts

In Massachusetts, the assistant to go through the state program of training and evaluation of nursing competence (NATCEP), to work in a variety of health care settings. Responsible for the management and control of the state NATCEP Defense assigned to the American Red Cross (ARC) of Eastern Massachusetts.

Training nurses program ARC (ARC NATP)

The American Red Cross of Eastern MO offers a program of assistance for the ARC nurse health care since 1989. The training program is 75 hours and corresponds to the state and federal law on the Omnibus Reconciliation 1987 and the guiding principles of education. CNA training programs can also be completed through general education colleges, adult education centers, technical institutes and vocational schools located throughout the country. The sole purpose of CNA training program is to train assistants care skills and knowledge of direct patient care, so that they can offer quality care to residents who can not care for themselves. Upon successful completion and graduation NATP students who are fed, can receive a request for the state test for evaluating the competence for the certification of CNA in the MoD. Then Cna certified may work in hospices, nursing homes, care centers for adults in hospitals, nursing care and other licensed establishments.

Requirements for ARC NATP

In the MA, a high school diploma or GED is not of & # 39 is a prerequisite for the adoption of the training program. Applicants must pass a test to assess the VRS to enter the ARC training program, and after the transfer of a negative test result for tuberculosis should be presented on the first day training class.

MA CNA Certification Test

Persons wishing to take the exam on the competence of assistant nurses in Massachusetts must complete Masters of Defense requirements for the testing of public health and the right to send the questionnaire to help the Registry Division of care on quality of nurse / verification training. Following the approval form applicants can fill out an application for testing and registration of ARC.

assistant certification test for medical care services ARC consists of a test of knowledge (written / oral test) and test skills. Applicants may also choose the location of choice and place the Red Cross for clinical demonstration facility. ARC test locations on the east MO is located in Fall River, Broktan, Giyanis, New Bedford, Lowell, Cambridge, Springfield, Haverhil, Pittsfield, Worcester and Peabody.

Candidates for testing must pass both parts of the DoD certification test to fit in MO allowances registry and get a CNA certification in MO. Certification as a & # 39 is mandatory for use in various medical institutions across the state of Massachusetts.

History Massachusetts (Part 1 of 2)

Before the arrival of Europeans the area, which today is in Massachusetts, lived various algankinskiya language Indian peoples, including Massachusetts, Pennakuk, Vampanaag, Nuset, Nipmuc, Pokomtuk, Magica, Naragansett and Mohegan. Alas, all these people were quickly dispersed by smallpox, when Europeans first arrived in North America.

In 1620, pilgrims arrived from England on Mayflor, established colonies in Plimutse. Like the Indians, the pilgrims suffered from smallpox. However, they were helped by vampanaagi and marks the first thanks to the Native Americans in the 1621 English settlers were known to the Indians as Engeeze (pronunciation of "English"). This is the origin of the word "Yankee".

In subsequent decades, the pilgrims followed the Puritans, who established a colony in Boston, as well as Anglicans and Quakers. However, there was religious tension prohibited kvakeryzm and four Quakers were hanged on Boston colony. At this time the English colonies of Connecticut and Rhode Island were based dissidents who fled from a lack of religious tolerance in Massachusetts Bay.

During the reign of King James II, who was open to Catholics, the charter of the colony of Massachusetts Bay was canceled. It was formed a short Dominion of New England, but the royal governor was deposed kalaniyalami. After the overthrow of James Plymouth colony and Kalan Massachusetts Bay (Boston) were a & # 39 are combined, and a new royal status was granted in 1692.

1692 was also informed about the trials of Salem. Courts continued until May 1693 and resulted in the death of 20 people (14 women and 6 men) and imprisonment of more than 150 people.

Governor Foster Furkola and his vision of the state of higher education in Massachusetts

More than 2 million students, or nearly 43% of college students' level would annually have never had the opportunity to attend a public higher education in Massachusetts, unless hot and relentless struggle Governor Foster Furkola for the creation of 15 colleges in the state was neither successful in the 1950s gg. Republicans & # 39; Editorial correctly put it in September 2009 that his services have been forgotten by politicians. In recognition of his services to the general laws of Massachusetts was amended two years ago, to mark the 15 local college teams as "Governor Foster Foucault." At a time when the private higher education was dominant and had access mainly to students with a well-employed seven & # 39; families Furkola governor opened the door to the state of higher education to those who could not afford to attend expensive private educational institutions. He wanted to be closer to the college community, provide education at a lower cost for citizens and for the state, consistent with the requirements of the growing industrial and service sectors, as well as increased revenue seven & # 39; ads, and state revenues in the long run. The use of his rational foresight can be seen clearly in the economy of Massachusetts and society today.

One of its objectives was to give an opportunity to get higher education member of the seven low-income & # 39; families who want to pursue higher education. He wanted to get to the immigrants, unemployed adults, working men and women and disable people wanting to improve their skills and engage in economic activities. The present composition of the student population shows how far the target group of the governor Furkola reached and benefited from its motion for colleges. According to a recent report on the economic impact of the average household income of students attending college at community colleges, was less than 36 000 US dollars per year, and 60% of recipients of financial aid, especially Pell Grant recipients were seven to & # 39; families earned less than in the US. $ 18 600 a year.

In the mid-fifties Governor Furkola seen population growth in college and the obstacles that they had to get to higher education. His solution was to create a state system of higher education to help this population, providing them with the opportunity to engage in learning, which increases the skills, part-time, open the basis of registration, as well as to enroll in remedial courses if necessary. Examination of the composition of the student population in Massachusetts colleges shows that the majority belongs to the adult part-time students. More than 61% of college students in Massachusetts – students studying part-time and a quarter hours, and over 25 years, only 39% – Full-time students in the traditional college age group. Many of them need to go through remedial courses, such as mathematics and English, Writing and Reading before joining the college. With regard to the recent study, based on high school courses in 2005, which went to college local Massachusetts, with an average of 37%, before starting work at the college level needed at least one treatment course (Conaway 2008).

Achieving the vision Fucolo make a public college education affordable for the poor seven & # 39; ads shows a comparison of education in college prices with other college systems even today. The national average cost of college tuition for public universities is 4694 dollars for the state's residents. Tuition and fees at a private college in the country is about 20 thousand dollars, while in the general education college price on average 2076 dollars. The same pattern is observed in Massachusetts. The nature of the student population demanded a higher education, since it considered Furkola demanded scattered forms of training. Small distance to about & # 39 objects saves time and reduces the cost of transportation, reducing the total cost to the individual, as well as minimizing disruption of daily treatments. Furkola provided that the College has a distance to travel to those who are engaged in household, as well as cases in the workplace, could visit them more conveniently. Thus, its law on the state of higher education in 1958 called for the adoption of laws on the establishment of the state system of 15 colleges across the terrain in Massachusetts. Currently, they are home to 46% of college students in Massachusetts, and it is more than four times the revenue of students in higher education in the 1950's (Burns, 1995) ,.

Foucault understood the need for skilled labor in the development of business and the manufacturing sector at the time, and the state of higher education the responsibility to create a pool of skilled labor, when Mass is to be competitive and keep pace with other states. Thus, society Colleges consider the problem of shortage of qualified personnel at the time. Training skilled labor collective – is the main function of colleges in force today. Complex regional colleges locals Massachusetts today offer a variety of programs leading to associate degrees, certificates and professional programs. They provide basic, fixed and medical courses for college students and adults. They are connected with the schools, the production and the workplace, and develop training programs and performance, helping to improve efficiency and productivity. Colleges in State College, MA for the first time entered into an innovative, low-cost, statewide resource manpower training for business and industry, called Mass * Net, and it helps ensure that training the workforce in the 21 technological sphere. According to Community College information source, about 5,000 programs for the development of the labor force each year offer a Massachusetts college. Providing skilled manpower needs of state production, trade and other official departments, they have helped to increase profits of production units, individuals and the state.

The governor wanted to make Furkola College College "venue" for higher education. One of the important missions of colleges today – to promote the translation of their graduates to four-year colleges that also & # 39 is an important component of the majority of college students; educational aspirations. Currently, the group of college has a well-developed programs and regulations that facilitate student transfers through agreements on the transfer, as well as four-year colleges and universities. As a member of the public higher education system, for example, Quinsigamond Community College has links with all four-year colleges and universities in Massachusetts and helps students transfer through a program of mass transfer, introduced in 2008. This program helps students by reducing tuition fees and credit transfers and make the translation process fast, smooth and affordable ..

The economic impact of the Group of Colleges on people seven & # 39; ads, and business is clearly visible today in Massachusetts. In a recent report on economic impact have estimated that pryrastayuchy annual income of college graduates in the community of 21,400 US dollars, compared with nevypusknikami. Education is also an opportunity for a better job with better benefits. It is estimated that 90% of graduates of Massachusetts College of college work in the state after graduation in business, industry and other service industries, and the income they generate, then spent mainly state. It means that the state is able to generate more revenue by taxing personal income college graduates working in the state. In addition, the cost of a college local commerce created a multiplier and the subsequent growth of the regional studies. These colleges also help local economies to support their economic activities due to the costs of students, visitors and workers. Thus, colleges Colleges Massachusetts steel engine state growth in accordance with the previous report on the economic impact.

Forecast Governor Foster Furkola on the state of higher education, which is discussed in this essay, has helped many poor and needy young and adult students to enroll in higher education. Personal income of those who attended these colleges has increased at the expense of higher education, as well as government revenues from the proceeds of the income tax. These graduates have become the greatest source of skilled workers for industry and business, which developed in Massachusetts. Furkolu Governor should be regarded as an outstanding military who served in the state of Massachusetts, and express their vision of the future, as noted by the Republican revision in September 2009.

Massachusetts times & # 39; Volume Health and IRS Section 125 POP Plan

Given the emphasis on federal health care reform is easy to get rid of attention to solutions that create some of the state to take control of the issue in the State. Since 2006, Massachusetts requires its citizens care. This landmark legislation has been praised throughout the country for the activity and needs of the citizens of Massachusetts. The epitome of this initiative with the & # 39 is the Massachusetts Health Connector – a service that connects residents of Massachusetts with the necessary medical care.
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Massachusetts employers with more than 11 employees who are entitled to, should create a plan of Section 125 to make access to health care for their employees. If you have 11 or more employees, and you do not plan to offer 125 section, you can get an additional supplement for the riders, if your employees will receive public health services. While it may seem the weight, the creation section 125 plan – it is really a great thing for you and for your employees.
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Why Partition Plan 125 win-win?

125 POP Plan is often called up exclusively of premium plan or product, and is controlled by section 125 of the Code of Internal Revenue. If the benefits offered under the plan section 125, the premiums paid by employees are calculated from their pay on the basis of taxation.
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This means that the taxable income of each employee below, as well as FICA and Medicare tax fee. For the employer, you will also use part of the relevant fee. Employers also save federal tax on unemployment and, depending on the state or county may also have additional tax savings.
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Even if you have less than 11 employees who are entitled to, and you do not want to create a section 125 plan, only taxation can make it worth it!

How do I create a Section 125 plan?

For Massachusetts employers in the Connector section, there is a sample document that you could view or offer his counsel and to keep it in line. Or you can hire a professional company to administer the documents that will create and maintain a section 125 plan with ease. They can provide a plan documents are ready for signing, customized for you and your needs, and in full compliance with IRS rules, just fifteen minutes.
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Currently, in Massachusetts and Utah state legislation acts for employers participating in the exchange, to create and support the partition plan of the Health 125, but for any employer that requires the employee’s contribution to health benefits, it is a great good for all, who is engaged.
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City areas – Cambridge, Massachusetts

Located just two miles from downtown Boston and connected by two bridges, you find Cambridge, Massachusetts. The birthplace of the world-famous Harvard University, MIT and Lesley College, Cambridge, with & # 39 is a bright and interesting city, full of history, art and academic science.
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What you may not know about Cambridge – is that it is often called the “city of squares”. At Cambridge there are six squares, and now a few details about each of them and where they are in Cambridge:
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1. Central area. This is an area in Cambridge, the center of which is joint avenue Massachusetts Avenue and Western Avenue. Lafayette Square, which was formed at the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Columbia Street, Sidney Street and Main Street, is also considered part of the Central Square area.
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2. Square Inman. This neighborhood in Cambridge. It is located to the north of Central Square, at the junction of Cambridge, Hampshire and Iman Street, near the border with Cambridge Somerville.
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3. The area of ​​Kendal. This neighborhood in Cambridge, itself a “square” at the intersection of Main Street, Broadway, Vudsvort Street and Third Street. It can also refer to a wide business district, which is east of Portland Street, to the north-west of the Charles River, north of MIT and south of the street Bini.
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4. Harvard area. This large triangular area in the center of Cambridge, at the intersection of the avenue Massachusetts, streets and brothers John F. Kennedy Street. It operates as a commercial center for Harvard students, as well as residents of western Cambridge and the inner western and northern suburbs of Boston near the historic heart of Harvard University, Harvard Yard and Square (as it is called locally).
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5. The area of ​​Porter. This neighborhood of Cambridge, Massachusetts located around the intersection and Prospect Avenue Somerville, between Harvard and Davis area. Porter Square station serves as the MBTA red line, and the passenger journey. Station is about 200 meters from the border with Somerville, so inhabitants “Porter Square” includes residents of both cities.
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6. Area Lehmer. (Pronounced “n & # 39; turnout”) square is located at the intersection of the first and St Cambridge. East Cambridge. It was originally named the owner of the landed era colonial era Richard Lehmer, Loyalists, who returned to England at the beginning of the American Revolution. Later, his lands were seized by the new US government. The coastline on the maps shown in the Revolutionary War as a “point of Lehmer” and was the point of landing of British troops, who moved to the battles of Lexington and Concord.
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Each square has its own unique identity, and you often meet people who are & # 39 are partial and loyal to the other square. They seek to communicate, buy and “party” on his favorite area. However, if you are visiting Cambridge, Massachusetts, feel free to take a uniqueness all its space and what they can offer. We all have art, restaurants, music venues, and, of course, interesting people who mlynayuts from around the world. You may also & # 39; traveling with his beloved Square in Cambridge!

Lock OUI-DUI in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

In the state of Massachusetts allowed the police to conduct checkpoints OUI-DUI to deter and detect violations of drivers. However, if you are stopped at the checkpoint and arrested for OUI-DUI, you may be able to get the evidence obtained by the police, and the case is closed, allowing a motion to dismiss attacks on police conduct in the performance of the checkpoint.

Typically, a police officer must have suras & # 39; a strong suspicion to seize a person under the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution and under Article 14 of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights. If the police stop a man at the checkpoint, the motorist detained without individual suspicion that a person commits an offense.

The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts found that the confiscation of checkpoints to detect drunk drivers is correct, if the police performs the strict rules laid down in the case, known as the "Commonwealth against MakGeogegana". Firstly, the selection of vehicles to stop must not be exercised arbitrarily. Accordingly, the police should stop the car in what sequence; this is usually done by each car stop. Secondly, security and inconvenience motorists should be provided with the implementation plan developed by staff oversight of law enforcement agencies on where vehicles will be stopped and where a further review will be undertaken. Thirdly, the area selected by law enforcement agencies to be the territory where there is a large number of arrests and accidents CID-JUI. Finally, although not required, BPK noted that prior notification of the public about the date, but not the exact location of traffic arrangement will reduce its sub & # 39 objective impact on motorists and maintain the constitutional validity of the checkpoint.

In the attack the validity of the checkpoint your lawyer should get a plan to block traffic by identifying, which will reveal how the police intended to set up checkpoints, stopping cars and the data that justify the choice of site. Along with the attack on the procedure for how to conduct a checkpoint, more the basis for the attack to stop with the & # 39 is that the officer did not have reasonable suspicion to order a motorist on the next move. The initial welcome the officer must have suras & # 39; a strong suspicion to suspect that a motorist under the influence of works before the motorist may be removed from the flow of traffic.

If you are stopped at a checkpoint, it is important that an experienced attorney analyzed the discovery, to see the police in line with due process in establishing roadblock and was there a reason for that you ordered from the traffic flow. A petition challenging the termination of these elements, if successful, should lead to the end of your case.

Stearman Boeing PT-17 is in flight over Massachusetts

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Climbing the narrow, Krylova lane and stepped on the soft seat tandem, double, covered with blue and yellow fabric open cockpit Boeing PT-17 Stearman registered N55171 in Stow, Massachusetts, I fell into place with the help of two reference edges of the upper edge of the wing and attached olive-green waist and shoulder harnesses. Donning goggles and helmet required for the era, I looked completely duplicated to a devices and has prepared himself as a battlefield surveillance aircraft Massachusetts and a short, though temporary, return to heaven basic flight training of the Second World War.

Styrman Boeing PT-17 originates in the project samafinansavanaga design project, intended for military purposes. Just starting to see a glimmer of light at the end of the Great Depression, the tunnel and still survived only in the manufacture of parts and components for other aircraft, primarily for aircraft Boeing B247, a twin-engine airliner, Stearman Aircraft Company believes that its future could provide only a military structure.

Investing their own money in 1933 it changed the Model 6 Cloudboy, earlier aircraft Lloyd Styrmana presenting new circular cross-section of the fuselage, similar to that used in the model 80, another Stearman design, providing only the lower wing ailerons, with integrated cantilever rack and installing a new tail with adjustable trims on the rear edge of its elevators. The model 70, she first arrived from Wichita, Kansas, January 1, 1934, powered devyatsitsylindravym, 210-hp., Radial engines Lycoming R-680, which turned out to be robust, reliable and well-suited to a strict training regiment with the ability to tolerate the aerobatic maneuvers, which have often been young drivers. Although he has demonstrated excellent management performance during a demonstration flight in the air, and the Army Corps of Naval Fleet of the United States in Dayton, Anakostsii and Pensacola, it almost docile response to stalls proved inadequate to carry out the planned; as a result of the installation of triangular stall strips, made of wood, on the lower wings sur & # 39; ozna interrupted airflow at high angles of attack and eliminate the flaw.

In May 1934 the Navy to be more interested in it, I ordered 41 aircraft, as well as spare parts for the version with a radial engine of 200 hp. Wright J5 called Model 73, but is designed NS-1 for the IUD. The first production aircraft was deployed in December of the same year.

A modified version, which includes a new main landing gear, and vice versa operates at 225-liters. S. Wright R-760 and the same power, devyatsitsylindravym radial engine Lycoming R-680, was developed by the summer and was sent to the Army Corps of air. . If next year the funding was allocated, Air Army Corps issued their own specifications Stearman airlines, resulting in an order for 20, as well as parts for Lycoming version designated Model X75, but called the PT-13 for the army operation.

Double basic training biplane identical to both operators, except for some minor functions, includes a rectangular welded steel fuselage, which was covered with metal panels on the front portion and the fabric at the stern and dismissed stop 25, the total length of ¼ inch. Monosyllabic unevenly spaced, chess upper and lower wings using NACA 2213 wing section were constructed with a laminated lapnikom carriages and ribs. The central section of its upper wing carried by steel bearing tubes, the substituted wire, while pamizhplanavyya steel pipe type "N" was carried out on both sides of it. Covered with a cloth, they reached the traffic on its longitudinal axis dyuralyuminavymi ailerons, mounted on the rear edge of the lower wing, and were collectively 32.2-foot span and 297.4-square-feet.

In tissue, the welded steel pipe, the rear flat ribbon and outboard vertical fin on the elevators presented plating.

Divided console chassis, wherein the radome includes a metallic, shock absorber comprises a spring with outboard rotation at each of its main noze was equipped with hydraulic brakes and adjustable tail wheel.

In a double, tandem open cockpit is a flight instructor and a student pilot and the baggage can be stored in the rear of the two enclosed compartment.

Working metal propeller with two-blade metal propeller mounted on a steel tube, radial engine which served central incision 43 galonavyya fuel tanks with 43 gallons and chetyrehkolonnym oil gallon in the United States, installed in the engine compartment of the aircraft with an empty weight of 1936 pounds and eight weight 2717 pounds can rise at a speed of 840 feet per minute and reached a maximum speed of 124 miles / hr and overhead ceiling 11 200 feet. Range of motion was 505 miles. Cruise speed, at 65 percent capacity, was 106 miles / hour and landing speed – 52 miles compliant.

The momentum of the Second World War, and in parallel, and dictates the production of the aircraft. Increased demand in the military in the early coaches brought in about $ 243.578 26 PT-13A to the Army Air Corps and 150,383 dollars to 20 for the Navy, and the next – $ 3 million for the PT-third 13B represents the highest in the history of Stearman and demanded the expansion of its plant and increasing the number of labor force in 1000 to the current record.

Besides the US, the design equally had foreign application. For example, 76D1 model had 9-power cylinder 320 hp bilobed, steering motor Pratt and Whitney R-985-T1B, try.30 caliber machine guns, two-way radio, and floats, and ten were originally ordered Argentine fleet. 73L3 model, which has an engine Lycoming R-680-4 to 225 hp, flew to the Philippines, but the plane also saw service in Brazil.

Indeed, until 1940, Stearman produced a simulator type PT-13, every 90 minutes, and the momentum, when he was in motion, was not regulated. June 25 the same year, the Navy signed a contract worth 3.8 million dollars with 212-liter units L2 R-680-8-powered N2S-2s and -5s, which led to another factory expansion to 40,000 square feet. By August, 1,100 employees worked two eight-hour shifts six days a week, and next month in 1400 worked around the clock in three eight-hour shifts daily.

Aircraft that have ended, crossed or Air Corps Army & # 39; base at Randolph Field in Texas or Navy in Pensakola, Florida.

To avoid production delays due to engine unavailability, Stearman produced two padversii. The first of these, PT-17, characterized by the tense air from the engine frame 300 hp, while he worked with standard syamitsylindravym radially Continental R-670-5 to 220 horsepower, and the second – PT- 18 was manufactured KS-225. Jacobs R-755. However, only 150 were built last. Both of & # 39 appeared in 1940.

March 15 next year, the Army Air Corps took delivery of the 1000th primary flight trainer in Vici, a single project Stearman, who has never reached such a production. But the main stages, which are caused by the war, quickly established only five months later, on August 27 2000th aircraft PT-17 was delivered to the Army Air Corps. This rate of production only the labor force increases can be kept the same, zatsmivshy 3,000 in April and 5,000 in June.

In September 1941, the aviation company Stearman, which has since become the "division of Boeing", the first time to liquidate the name Stearman, just remodeled "The aviation company Boeing, Wichita Division".

The basic construction was as civilian applications according to the approved standard certificate № 743, which was issued June 6, at the 1941 model A75L3, equivalent Lithuanian PT-13 capacity of 225 hp and A75N1 model, Continental R 220 hp -670 analogue. Types that are simultaneously produced on existing military production lines were sold to Park Air College in Illinois, one of the operators of civil pilot training program in Peru, as A75N1.

By December 1941 the frame was completed every 60 – 70 minutes.

Other specialized version, PT-27, was modified Continental engine for arctic temperatures with the cockpit canopy hood for instrument flight device's electrical system and landing lights. Of the 300 orders the Royal Canadian Air Force 287 were returned between December 1942 and June 1943 for non-fulfillment of the necessary modifications after delivery, which makes them unsuitable for thermal operations at zero temperature.

If in 1945 the war ended, the division of "Boeing" has produced 8584 Wichita flight trainers, or 44 percent of all coaches in the summer. Nevertheless, more than a year after the closure of the production line it has received an order for 24 N2S-4 with the People's Republic of China. Two of these aircraft – one with serial number 37902, which was first staged 31 October 1942 and registered 1564 hours, and one with serial number 55759, which was delivered July 20, 1943 and has flown 1116 hours. located in Clinton, Oklahoma, and after major repair and installation of six-cylinder Lycoming O-435-II was sent May 23, 1947 They were later joined by 20 kontynentalnyh R-670- 4 220 hp with N2S-third power

Total Stearman produced 11 major versions of the main trainers for the Army and Navy.

II

On the dashboard PT-17 Massachusetts situated below slender windshield exhibited a compass direction vertical speed indicator, air speed indicator (in miles per hour), the rotation and height indicator vyshynyametr, clock, external air pressure gauge and oil and the fuel pressure (in pounds per square inch), mataryyny propeller (in revolutions per minute) and the flow switch the gas tank, the latter for "left", "right" or "off". Draselnyya engine valves and mixtures placed on the left side of the wall, and the steering wheel and brake pedal were on the floor, a little at my feet.

Continental discloses a radial engine 220 hp, which is supplied with 46-galonavaga fuel tank, and properly initiated improved control throttle and mixture filling the frame with an air capacity perspective since its spraying, smoking, screw-avge ryhinga. It rotates in sliding, bathed in the horizontal stabilizer, instantly causing the stick between my legs spinning in the same position at the rear.

Responding to its advanced reactor, Stearman moved under the radiant southern sun, parallel Asabel river, turning right, and performing a complete engine start, directed towards the well-groomed, chamfered, 2300-meter field of the field, which would directly serve its runway . In the end, it was the Second World War.

Napravlyayuchysya forward under its own power and vyravnavayuchysya with grass field, PT-17, was bitten by the wind with fully advanced reactors, raising tail, rising before unleashing two main wheels are rotating at a speed of 60 km / h and overcome the trees on the perimeter of the field in the rising, turn left at 550 feet.

Green carpet, blue lake topography of Massachusetts, without interference in the crystal-blue June sky 80 degrees, retreated below me.

Walking 1,200 feet when the lifting speed of 600 feet per minute and 72 miles / hr, indicating the air velocity, biplane registering reading 1800 revolutions per minute at its bladed propellers, moved over a plurality of reflective lake lakes. Stowe field is now reduced to indistinguishable green carpet.

Predetermined, energetic signal tremor stick same helmet and close the pilot behind me, whose presence could visually check a tiny mirror, mounted in the upper part of the wing on the lower side, pointed to the flying arms and touch my helmet confirmed its recognition.

Shelf between my legs, the only side control means (Krokowa) and longitudinal (roll) axis aircraft, led to my destiny and direction to a single channel and bombed from all sides, unobstructed wind, I made a new freedom, which overshadowed how limited earthly limitation and descriptive adjectives.

Maintaining 240 degrees to the southwest, driving over the Hudson River with the air speed of 80 km / min, I sent to the nose still fuzzy outlines of mountains Vachuset silhouette which rose above the horizon, is now an isolated own world, disconnected from civilization. Earth and even the driver behind me in a harmonious, merging with the soul of the universe. Isolated, nowhere to cling to, whether it's physical location or a negative emotion, the soul always end up there again to its autonomous status. If this state could only be a constant …

Going to the south, the 180-degree direction over Marlbara, I passed the reservoir Sudbury, the upper and lower wing, erected under the & # 39; lift to take me to 1800 feet at a speed of 90 km / h, while motor fuel drank 11 liters per hour. -gadinnaya thirst.

Pressing the left stick pushed in PT-17 to east travel and for Savbara Fremingemam toward Boston, its pressure in the motor was 75 psi.

Most of the training of civil and military pilots of World War II occurred in the same plane that I flew.

In an effort to fill a large need for the university students to 20 000 trainee pilots a year, in December 1938, President Roosevelt signed a bill to create a training program for civilian pilots, which pilots are already armed with a sufficient number of hours of the civil school, which will be qualified to complete training at air bases for the army and navy airplanes PT-13, PT-17 and N2S Stearman. To remedy the two major drawbacks of insufficient inclusion in the curriculum of the art military flight techniques and the original duty to serve in the armed forces immediately after graduating from high school, primary school program in which the Civil Aviation Authority for the first time tested and approved civilian. flight schools were created. Specially contracted premises, staffed civilian flight instructors who themselves have had to go through pilot training at radolfskim field to "ensure uniformity of training in accordance with the practices and standards of the air corps" were provided by the curricula, textbooks, and others. Main Stearman trainers directly from the army. The first such pilots included in the program of June 1, 1939 and in December 1941 totaled 125, which were scattered over 41 schools.

However, this month has been known for the infamous attack of Pearl Harbor with an unprecedented increase in the pilot housing and combat groups. For the three months prior to this event, in the autumn, the air Army Corps drew up plans for a simultaneous fight against the German Third Reich and the Japanese Empire, assessing needs two million soldiers and 88,000 aircraft. Although training centers Army Air Corps at Randolph Field, Maxwell Field in Alabama and Moffe Fields in California were established in mid-1940, they found themselves in the event of war pitifully inadequate, as well as due to the small number of pilots. them. Since the war clouds have burst at its seams as possible to eliminate these deficiencies should not be underestimated and the projected number of required combat teams and pilots increased at a rate of rotation hours. In the two months before Germany invaded Poland, the number was 24 battle groups and 1,200 pilots a year, but when Germany invaded Norway, these figures rose to 41 and 7000. The Nazi invasion of France further strengthened the need for up to 54 and 12,000 and eventually to 84 and 39 thousand.

Other vigorous shrugging sticks showed that the time has come too quickly relinquish control, which I confirmed another signal handmade helmet, and the pilot took over the place, showing some significant maneuvers: thrown back, he called biplane. in a vertical dive, green carpet is now right in front of the windshield when he accelerated through 1200 feet, before he was arrested in the G train, which is returned to level flight.

Starting twirled the left bank, the biplane plunged 500 feet, leveling and gudevshy front of the field before returning to catch up and circled back to the left, to finally come. It seemed that clears trees at a height of 400 feet with their extended main wheel, he got up on the grass with a decrease in power of 60 km / h, biting the soft surface of your tires until deceleration is not allowed to move the tail wheel to the ground.

Wheel in a circle to the right, PT-17 Stearman applied the brakes, and I was released from the belt and shoulder harnesses, and helmets and glasses and lifted out of the pit like the seat with the help of a wing sleeve, climbing down. to the grass along the root of the wing strips.

Waiting for a passenger, my envy, took my place in another raspylyanym biplanes – a scene that may be reminiscent of "production line" student pilots who have come to expect the PT-17, the following classes in the 1940s. The aircraft is the first link in the chain of victory, provided vital training pilots who later moved to larger, more powerful and heavily armed fighters and bombers, which they eventually won the war. Першапачатковы, а часам і найменшы, аспект любой аперацыі часта аказваецца самым важным.

Вяртаючыся да сваёй машыны сярод спёкі, я б падумаў пра гэтую філасофію …