Christmas Tree Shop


Shopping for Christmas tree – it is a network or shops, where you can find a variety of trees, as well as detailed information on a variety of decorative items. It was launched in 1970 in Yarmutportse, Massachusetts, USA. Since then it has spread to several US locations. Now retail chains located in thirteen states of the USA and became a multi-million corporation.

These woodworking shop and really deal holidays in these outlets offer huge discounts. From home furnishings to toys Christmas decoration Of these outlets sell items, all kinds of festival items. In these stores you can get your favorite tree at the best price. Wherever you are in the US, you are sure to get one such shop in a nearby location.

Features stores trees:

The market offers a variety of beautiful and elegant look artificial trees. Expanding the tendency for people to choose artificial trees. Some people prefer to look like artificial trees because they do not create a mess in the house, like natural wood. Currently, the market there are different types of stylish and personalized artificial trees. All this is available at these stores.

Even some prefer natural trees instead of artificial. In these shops there are ample of natural wood. Some of these stores are sold fresh trees and many other festive items like ornaments, lights and other decorative items.

Various shops trees:

Many stores are in different states. Below we offer you a list of several popular stores in Massachusetts and New York.

Shops trees in Massachusetts

1. avon

Via I Party

15 Stockwell Drive

Avon, MA 02322

(508) 586-6438

2. Falmouth

Falmouth Plaza

Route 28Davis, pralivFalmut,

MO 02540 (508) 548-1414

3. Linfield

Next to the restaurant Ship

28-34 Broadway

Route 1 SouthLynnfield,

MO 01940 (781) 598-0004

4. Shrewsbury

Thousand Boston TurnpikeShrewsbury,

MO 01545

(508) 842-5945

Shops trees in New York

5. Albany

Colony center

unit 242

1425 Central Avenue g.Alban, NY, 12205 (518) 459-0878

6. deer park

Outlets in the arches

1150 Arches CircleDeer Park, NY 11729 (631) 586-1648

7. Johnson City

Through Toy R Us

420 Harry L. Drive

Johnson City, NY, 13790

(607) 798-0468

8. Syracuse

Northern Lights Shopping Center

132 shopping center Northern Lights

Syracuse, New York 13212 (315) 454-9223


Green light to make fraudulent limiters?


The green light to release? Can last documents, which were obtained with phony orders 209A, were deported to Massachusetts?

Entries 209A orders live long and relentless. Even the decision ex parte, which lasts only 10 days, and will not be extended, creating a record that will haunt the defendant if it is another matter 209A or against him in on his own recognizance, to name a few cases. Two recent decisions of the courts of Massachusetts, perhaps paving the way to free up some of these records. These cases and their implications are discussed below.

In March 2006, the Appeals Court of Massachusetts ruled in a case that lasts four years, and the decision to shed light on the problem, which involves the mind falsely accused defendants 209A much longer: Has the District Court Judge characteristic exclusion order to limit 209A of republican violence registry something & # 39; and when the order was obtained by fraud in court. In short, it may seem strange, but very welcome: Yes. it was v The Commissioner of the test. Adams , 65 wt. Application. Ct. 725 (2006).

The case began when the pair (for reference to be used by John Adams and aliases) received mutual 209A restraining orders against each other, which were later extended by one year. Sometime during this period, after Jones was charged with violations of Order 209A and prosecutions in two different courts, Adams filed a petition for the release 209A Order against her and the release of all records of the order. Here there was a typical game of ping-pong court. The judge granted the motion to dismiss, recognizing 19 statements made by Jones, false, but refused to dismiss. Adams sent a second request for release has already released the order 209A, to which Commissioner conditional prabavannyu (a service that provides these documents). The judge granted Adams & # 39; a motion to dismiss, but the commissioner has filed a petition for review. The judge rejected the request of the Commissioner, and the Commissioner has appealed a request that the judge has no authority to prevent the release. The Commissioner argued that, while the legislature expressly authorized by the rules and the development and implementation of the system, containing records of all disbursements and violations of 209A orders in Massachusetts provided by the issuance of information, because, according to the Commissioner, the goal was to save the system "full information on the defendant. "

The Commissioner was right that 209A of the Law does not contain any provisions that would allow to get rid of even the wrong prescriptions. While this is not surprising, and it is no secret that the status 209A – it's poorly written and overly broad statute, but specifically in the legislature said that no attacks are not allowed, this vagueness has left a hole and the possibility of judges to adopt a good law but bad, for a change. This is exactly what the Court of Appeal decided to returned to the judges of the lower court powers which have never been selected head 209A, but judge humbly served in settings 209A: Power to correct judicial errors and attempt to "ensure the full and effective implementation of justice" when it was revealed the fraud in court. In such cases, the Court of Appeal pointed out, referring to the various previous cases, "the absence of statutory authorization insignificant", in addition, such a power "can not be restricted or abolished by the legislature."

In this case, the dismissal of the Order 209A against Adams is not enough to protect the integrity of the courts and does not send the corresponding communications from the public. Order Removing leaves a record in the order in the system. This not only leaves a permanent mark against Adams, but also leaves the eternal record of falsification obtained a court order. While labels such as "disapproved" or "closed", apply to records in the system, does not explain why the order was stopped or the case is closed. Many orders were released 209A exempt due to the inability of the victim to criminal liability. Law enforcement officials will not be notified that the order was released, since it was obtained by fraud on the court. Most likely, they may suggest that he was released because of the failure of the victim to criminal liability or because of insufficient evidence. Committing fraud would worsen the court itself, when law enforcement officers rely on inaccurate information provided by the court. As well as order the release under these conditions from the & # 39 is insufficient remedy, order sealing records is equally insufficient. If the records are sealed, they do not disappear. Although the sealed records are not available to the public, the raw data is still made available to law enforcement agencies (police, probation offices and courts). Law enforcement agencies will retain access to the information from the & # 39 is incorrect and misleading, and was obtained by fraud in court. Thus, the seal will not correct the court's conclusions.

Id. at 731-732 (citations omitted).

Bravo? Can we start to request that all released orders 209A were removed today? Not really. Firstly, the Court made it clear that to be deleted only the orders procured by fraud. As an example of the type of orders is NOT subject to the exclusion of the Court cited Vaccaro v. Vakarash the case where the order of 209A was released because there was not enough evidence for its extension, in contrast to the order, originally obtained by fraud. Weight 425 153 (1997). The Court stated that in the case of a released order or dismissal due to the failure to prosecute, but where there is no fraud, there is a "value" for law enforcement officials in the conduct of its delivery reports.

Second, the Court stated fairly strict definition of what constitutes fraud, namely "where it can be demonstrated, clearly and convincingly That party carefully launched some irrational scheme calculated to interfere with the judicial system, the ability to impartially consider the case by improper exposure to Trier or unfairly hampering the presentation of claims or to protect opposition. " Adams , B 729-730 (citations omitted).

Thirdly, the court said the timing of a motion to dismiss, ruling that the defendants 209A "have ample opportunity to assert (falsification) argument" on the 10 th day and continued the hearing. "If the judge does not make a conclusion about the fraud in court, the defendant will not be grounds for a subsequent application for release records from the system. Nothing in GL c. 209A, or, on this view, does not require a hearing at the request of the accused for release. In addition, vivid and convincing proof of the requirements of evidence needed to demonstrate the falsification of the results of a judicial finding, necessarily limit the number of times may be set aside. regarded as a proper means. " Id. at 736-737.

Not far from open boats Adams It seems, this case offers all the same small vzlamanne doors, releasing certain orders 209A when supported by Sur & # 39; significant evidence of fraud and taken to exactly the right time.

Less than six months after the Court of Appeal decided Adams Much closer to everyday reality ordered 209A, Judge Gregory Flynn in the District Court, Walt decided, applying the new standards from the Adams . it was Chamberlain v. Hanlyan Docking District Court Walt number 0651-RO-ninety-ninth Here the plaintiff is not a & # 39; to appear at a hearing 10 days, and the day ended 209A order against the defendant. Even 11 days after the Respondent filed a petition for the release of records that claims of fraud on behalf of the plaintiff. The defendant supported his request several readings, which set out the facts in support of fraud. The plaintiff is not a & # 39; to appear at a hearing on the petition on dismissal, but the Commissioner under the terms of imprisonment with a & # 39; appeared and opposed the expulsion, in this case, although this time arguing that its sole purpose is to to oppose the motion, it was confident that the standards set out in Adams go.

"In light of the statements made in their respective appeals, the actual support provided by the accompanying statements of absence of the applicant to the allegations of fraud, the court is clearly convinced that the original restraining order was granted only on the basis of the falsification of the facts presented in court," – wrote the judge Flynn. "Accordingly, in accordance with standards set forth in Commissioner for imprisonment against Adams , Application for dismissal was allowed. "

The case of the District Court with & # 39 is "unpublished" and the reasoning and justification Judge Flynn does not exclude from its short decision. It is interesting to note, however, that seems to be the norm established deadlines Adams The Court of Appeal did not meet here. The Adams The Court of Appeal noted that the 10-day hearing or further hearing, which occur in the defendant, only the defendants could bring charges of fraud. That's a 10-day hearing it and without traffic cleared. Nevertheless, Judge Flynn still allowed exemption from criminal liability, if the application was made after 11 days. It is also interesting to note that both of the accused in the two cases discussed above were women, and both have car & # 39; EPHA motivated reasons to seek exile: one was a lawyer, and the second – a licensed pharmacist.

Will the other judges Adams Flynn as a judge, and will be able to dozens of false accusations in Massachusetts to get help from this turn in the law – time will tell.


The ignition lock device – pitfalls and problems


Offered as a reliable alcohol lock device in the blood – it's just that. The ignition lock device – is cheap breathing apparatus, which is connected to the electrical system of the offending vehicle. Before you go, the user must lock the device to breathe, so it can measure the reading BAC (Blood Alcohol Content). If the level of the driver's BAC is 0.10 or below, the device allows the engine to run. However, if the driver's BAC is .021 or higher, the car will not start. Once the machine is started, the driver must periodically breathe device. If the device registers a BAC, exceeds a predetermined limit, there will be "a violation of the rolling test". These repeated tests are designed to ensure that the driver did not drink while driving and he did not have anyone else to give an initial breath sample.

In Massachusetts, the locking device is required for those who have a license suspended twice in Massachusetts or in any other jurisdiction for the management of drunk people or some other offenses related to alcohol. Since their inception in Massachusetts protested controversy over ignition interlock devices. These devices were necessary for drivers who have resumed a suspended license or licensed to unhappiness, in force since 1 January 2006. While some statements about blocking – is the answer to many questions JUI, many experts say that the device is properly and as a result of invalid readings of alcohol. 10-year and lifetime license suspension.

The ignition lock device is not a & # 39 is entirely problematic. Like any controversial subject, the device has its own advantages. For example, not allowing people with a high BAC from driving, this device can provide roads safer and less prone to accidents at certain times, when the strong n & # 39; yanstva with & # 39 is the norm. Register of motor vehicles and on the appeals board should feel more comfortable in providing licenses for the misfortune to people that have a locking device. lock device must allow multiple offenders to keep their jobs, so they can live their lives and maintain their seven & # 39; and. In an ideal world, this would be enough, but this world is not perfect, and the device is significantly flawed.

The locking devices used in Massachusetts, using fuel cell technology. It is much less reliable than the infrared technology used in police breathalyzer. These devices are not & # 39 are alcohol and various substances, in addition to alcoholic beverages, will be registered as an alcoholic. For example, common materials such as protein bars, cough drops, cinnamon, baking, perfumes, hair sprays and coffee, which prefers registered as alcohol. There also were cases when the locking device registered alcohol and the driver immediately went to the hospital or the police for comparison analysis for alcohol in the blood. In all cases, the tests and / or surveillance police completely contradicted a faulty ignition lock device. These are just a few examples of the many problems associated with locking devices. Other problems include faulty equipment, frayed cord and the deviation of breath samples.

ignition interlock device is not a & # 39 is a reliable device, and it is based on the mode of thinking "guilty until proven innocent." This is not something that should be of the legal system of this country. You can not hope for a device that can easily be mistaken items such as bakery products, protein products, mouthwash and a drop of alcohol to take away someone's license for 10 years and life. Sensor undergoes oxidation reaction on BAK to respiration, as opposed to more reliable infrared spectroscopy, which is used in the illustrative respiratory apparatus. Thus, the drivers provide an extra set of car that could potentially indicate their crime and ruin their lives. Man must be innocent until proven guilty, but with an unreliable detector opposite. However, some people who seek the difficulties, there is nothing left, how to deal with locking devices.

Hopefully, you are now more educated on the subject. Before laws are more developed, existing laws need to be improved. No one should ever before & # 39; an indictment for an offense they did not commit, and as long as these devices are not exact, they can not blindly rely suspend someone's license.


January 2008 Mortgage Licensing Update


In 2007, there have been many changes, and we can expect even more in 2008. Going along with the laws of the state bodies and the current market conditions, which affect their decision-making power, we can expect a lot of new laws related to the mortgage business. each state. Especially if the US Congress decides to adopt legislation requiring minimum levels of licensing in each state, which will probably take place at the beginning of this year.

In January the following updates:

o Licensing Update FHA

Form Massachusetts bonds issued

o Colorado E & O requirements postponed

o licensing of Alaska to 7/1/08

About released nationwide mortgage licensing system

FHA Licensing Update

With the recent adoption of legislation by the House and the US Senate, the US is expected to change much in 2008. The Senate bill, which has just been adopted, was much more conservative than a bill to the House, and did not include items such as paruchytselnaya bond instead of a proven validation funds, a sharp increase in FHA loan limits and risk-based pricing. However, he included some suras & # 39; major changes in the HECM loan (reverse mortgages), which many excited.

Now, two bills have been sent to the committee by the House and the Senate to reach a compromise on the differences. I would expect that the Senate maintains its position, and the final bill will be very similar to a bill that was recently passed by the Senate, but still there is a chance that some of the provisions of the House bill will be accepted. I would expect that the final bill will be sent to the president until February.

Form Massachusetts bonds issued

Massachusetts in September before the & # 39; has revealed some of the new requirements for new licensees, one of which was a requirement of bonds. Unfortunately, the new form of government bonds did not become available. All mortgage companies that have applied for a mortgage broker license, as from that date. Massachusetts has finally released a new form of bonds, but so far the insurance companies still have not been approved. Many companies are waiting for this final article to get a license, and hope that in the near future insurance companies will release the guarantee bond in a new form.

Colorado requirement E & O postponed

Colorado has recently issued a new requirement for all individual brokers mortgages (loans creators), licensed in the State, in order to maintain the policy in the field of IA. Insurance companies that are beginning to give them about the beginning of December, however, one of the issues the statement was: "What percentage of loans that have arisen in the past 12 months, were additional loans?". Whoever he said more than 20%, or refused or said that for the policy will have to pay thousands.

In connection with this issue of Colorado issued an emergency decree that will allow up to 1/31/08 years for citizens to obtain the necessary insurance, as well as to increase the maximum deductible to make the bond more economical. Colorado is becoming known for its extraordinary resolutions, so the state legislature does not give enough time Colorado real estate department for the implementation of the new legislation.

Licensing Alaska to 7/1/08

This is just a reminder for those of you who are currently receiving loans in Alaska. Many people for many years can get a license without a license, but the new licensing requirements will take effect from July 1, 2008 Make sure that you will receive an application in the near future, if you want to pursue it after the first of the year.

Released nationwide mortgage licensing system (NMLS)

Just a last reminder for those who have a license in the first 7 states that will use the system. You want as soon as possible to gain access to the system to update the information about your company. Here is a list of the first 7 states that will use the system:

o Idaho

o Iowa

o Rhode Island

o New York

o Kentucky

o Massachusetts

o Nebraska


Some facts about the treatment and prevention centers and treatment programs


The choice of drug rehab center can make all the difference in terms of a successful recovery. Suppose that a person is suffering from any addiction and wants to rehabilitate himself, almost half of the recovery path can be solved by selecting the appropriate rehabilitation centers and treatment programs. If you are looking for the appropriate narkolagichny center, it is always better to spend it on a search for the best in your state. The choice of drug treatment center for alcohol and drug rehabilitation always requires a certain amount of attention to the successful recovery of its task. There are more than enough drug rehabilitation centers in Massachusetts, which offer several programs of treatment depending on the type and depending on the state of patients. Treatment programs in these centers are always different from the drug. This treatment center offering such treatment programs, which cover all aspects of addiction, which is morally and physically. Thus, it clearly shows that if someone chose the wrong rehabilitation program, the chances of successful recovery is always reduced. This article has useful information about drug rehabilitation center, which will help you in an effective drug treatment.

Before you enroll in any drug rehab center in Massachusetts, let me confirm that the treatment duration of the program may take more than a month. Thus, you have to be patient, to obtain effective treatment in these centers. Upon receipt of the patients in these rehabilitation centers first and foremost, that the proposed center, – a detoxification program. In this program, virtually all death and toxic materials that are present in the body of the addict are removed using various drugs. Typically, the duration of the detox program takes a week, and through this process they prepare for another drug rehabilitation program. It has been seen that most people are willing to leave the medical point because they can not tolerate the withdrawal symptoms during this process. So it is always recommended to carry out a detoxified by a qualified health care professional who is prepared enough to handle any situation in this period of treatment. Once the detoxification process is finished, these centers offer inpatient and outpatient treatment, which depends on the condition of the patients.

Although effective for detoxification of physical recovery of patients, it is also important to provide for efficient recovery of psychological rehabilitation. For effective and best treatment, most centers offer inpatient treatment for those who suffer from severe addiction. But in other cases for outpatients they have frequent therapeutic option to get the proper treatment and care. The residential treatment programs possible faster recovery compared to outpatient treatment program, because during inpatient treatment, the patient is constantly observed round the clock health care workers.

Thus, to obtain an effective treatment to rehabilitation, always keep in mind the above.


Johnson & Johnson are studying a new blood test for cancer


A new test that can detect one cancer cell in a small blood sample among a billion healthy cells, is developed. Veridex, the company Johnson and Johnson, and Ortho Biotech Oncology Research & Development (ORD), division of Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical R & D, collaborating with researchers at the Massachusetts University Hospital (MGH, Boston, MA) to work on breeding tests on the market.

The initial prototype was developed by a team of doctors, engineers and biologists led by Dr. Daniel Haber and Memeta Toners at the Massachusetts General Hospital. It was first reported in 2007. The test detects circulating tumor cells (CCC), cancer cells that break away from the tumor is interested in blood. These CPC are extremely rare, they can be found for every billion surveyed normal healthy blood cells.

Haber and toner developed CTC-chip containing thousands of miniaturized columns coated with antibodies that bind to CTK. If the blood sample is passed through a chip, normal cells are, but CTK adhere. Special stains allow investigators to calculate the number of TCC in the patient's blood sample.

This test can be used to help doctors more quickly make decisions about how to proceed in the treatment of cancer patients. If the doctor gives a particular drug and the number of cancer cells in the blood falls, the doctor will follow this treatment. If the number of tumor cells circulating in the blood, increases or remains the same, the doctor may switch to another drug that may work better in the destruction of cancer.

For example, doctors may appoint drug or radiation treatment and then do a CT scan a few months to find out whether the patient has a tumor has not changed. The patient may not survive a few rounds of adjustments of treatment, when it is necessary to wait to see whether there can be found the change in tumor size. While CT – full-body X-ray, CTC-chip is simple and requires only a few teaspoons of blood and they are able to accurately determine whether the treatment was able to quickly.

CTC-chip has been tested experimentally in about 200 cancer patients. A grant for $ 15 million, provided by the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) "Preparation for cancer", will allow investigators in four major research institutions to study the test on a larger number of patients with cancer. These institutions include: Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA), University of Texas cancer center named Anderson (X & # 39; Euston, Texas), Cancer Institute Dana-Farber (Boston, MA), and Memorial Cancer Center Sloan- Keteryng (New York, NY).

Now the expensive chip (about $ 500) and requires experience to use. Collaboration with Johnson & Johnson to help the investigation MGH find ways to make the chip faster, cheaper, more sensitive and easier to use by physicians. I hope more. This chip can change the way cancer diagnosis and treatment in the near future.


Adolescent girls – a subject of sexual harassment


The press, as well as lawyers for employment significantly acquainted the American public with the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. Many of the adults were subjected to sexual advances, requests for sexual goodwill and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, had the purpose or effect to interfere unduly in the career person, creating zapalohvayuchuyu, hostile, humiliating or sexually offensive work environment. . However, over the last few years the general public has become aware not only of how unprofessional and unethical practices such, but more importantly, how such behavior can lead to significant costs and bulk solutions for emotional disorders.

Employers and supervisors in Massachusetts can not sexually harass their employees by direct or indirect intent. If you oversight behavior aim and result of undue interference in his career employee, creating zapalohvalnyya, hostile, humiliating and sexually abusive working conditions, the courts of Massachusetts classify this behavior as sexual harassment. Cardona v. Conn. Car Rental, 20 wt. L. Rep. 82 (2005). More precisely, according to Massachusetts law, it is unlawful practice for an employer, as defined General refer to the mass law. 151B, § 1 (5)To sexually harassing any employee. Furthermore, sexual harassment is not limited by any verbal conduct of a sexual nature that is unreasonably expected to interfere with the employee's work by creating humiliating or sexually offensive work environment. 151B. Melnychenko v. 84, timber 424 wt. 285 (1997).

According to the law of the State of Massachusetts, the employee has the right to get rid of the unreasonable, substantial or suras & # 39; oznaga invasion of privacy, as stated in GL c. 214, § 1B, will testify. In case, if the defendant's entrepreneurship is a violation of the rules of supervision, while he or she holds a supervisory position, acts of sexual harassment fall within the scope of employment for the purposes of GL c. 214, § 1B. College-Town, Div. by Interco, Inc. against Massachusetts, Comm & # 39; n Against Discrimination, 400 Mass. 156, 165-167, 508 N.E.2d 587 (1987).

As a result, many companies have since introduced a policy of harassment, they require that all employees read before starting work. In addition, there are training programs for the workforce for adults in many companies. The problem is that many companies are working part-time teenage staff who do not understand the consequences of sexual harassment and does not participate in any of the training programs, read the manual or refer to sexual harassment by their supervisors, who in many cases teens. This is especially a problem for businesses, which can usually be found in shopping centers, such as fast food, retail company and amusement.

During 2007, according to the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEAK), referring to the 16 – 19 year olds, "filed the charges and the evidence points to the obvious fact that discrimination on the & # 39 is a problem for teens." According to the professor of social work Susan Fineran, 35% of the students surveyed said they are sexually harassed at work, of which more than 60% – teenage girls. According to the report of the Nation & # 39 magazine; s Restaurant News, over the past decade only restaurant paid 7.3 million dollars for the trial of sexual harassment among adolescents.

What is the point of all this? If corporate America wants to avoid costly litigation, it must do a far better job educating teenagers working part-time, just as they did with their entire workforce for adults.


Anne Bredryt, "dear and loving husband", the discussion


"To my dear and loving husband" was written by the first poet of America, Puritan, Anne Bradstreet. In fact, Anne Bredryt – this is only one of several female American poets during the first 200 years of American history. After Bredstryta can only list the Phyllis Wheatley, a black poet of the 18th century, Emma Lazarus, the poet of the 19th century, whose famous words appear on the Statue of Liberty, and the well-known poet of America of the 19th century Emily Dickinson, America. .

"To my dear and loving husband" has several standard poetic features. One of the two rows – rhyme scheme. Another Anaphora – repetition of the phrase in the first three rows. And the third part – the popular iambic pentameter.

Iambic Pentameter characterized unrhymed line of five feet or accents. Each stop comprises a composition without pressure and composition with emphasis, as in "yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes".

The theme of love poems of Anna Bredryt – it was her love for her husband. She praises him and asks the heavens to reward him for his love. Poem – a touching display of love and affection and extraordinarily uncommon for the Puritan era of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, where Anne lived Bredryt.

It was expected that the Puritan women will be restrained, domestic and subject to her husband. They are not expected and did not allow to show his wit, charm, wit and passion. John Winthrop, Massachusetts governor, once remarked that women who showed intelligence and intuition, tended Soshel & # 39; yatsets.

Anne Bredstret Anne Dudley born in 1612 in England. She married Simon Bredryta, when she was 16, and they both went with family & # 39; s in America in 1630. Severe cold and the journey took 3 months in America. John Winthrop was also a passenger trip. Travel landed in Boston and the passengers joined the Massachusetts Bay.

The men in the family & # 39; and Anna Bredryt were leaders and politicians. And her father, and her husband became governor of Massachusetts. Her husband, Simon often went for weeks on the colony as an administrator.

Poem Anne Bredryt "To my dear and loving husband" was a response to her husband's absence.

Very little is known about the life of Anne Bredryt in Massachusetts. She has no portraits, and she does not even inscription on the tomb. She and her family & # 39; I have moved several times, each time further away from Boston at the border. At Anne and Simon had 10 children over a 10-year period, and all the children survived healthy and safe, a remarkable achievement in view of the danger to the health and safety of the period.

Anne Bredryt was very intelligent and largely self-education. It saw itself suras & # 39; ozna as an intellectual and poet, widely read history, science, art and literature. However, as a good Puritan woman, Bradstreet did not make all his achievements.

Bredstret wrote poetry for herself, something & # 39; and and friends, never meaning to publish them. Consider that her friend Anne Hutchinson was intellectual, educated and led women's prayer meetings where alternative religious beliefs were discussed. She noted heretics and banished from the colony. Hutchinson eventually died in an Indian attack. Is it any wonder that Anna Bredryt did not hesitate to publish their poems and to draw attention to yourself?

Early poems Bredryt Anne were secretly delivered to her in-law to England and published a small volume when she was 38 years old. That was well sold in England, but the verses were not so satisfied, as her next work.

More recent work Bredstreta were not published during his lifetime. Her poems of love for her husband were private and personal. They had to share only with family & # 39; It and friends.

Although her health is often a cause for concern, especially during childbirth, Anne Bradstreet lived until 60 years.

Enjoy a wonderful achievement, "Dear and sweet husband."

To my dear and loving husband

If ever two were one, then surely we.

If ever a man was the favorite, and wife, then thee;

If ever wife was happy in a man,

Compare with me a woman, if you can.

I reward your love more than whole mines of gold,

Or all the wealth that has the East.

My love is such that Rivers can not repay,

It is not necessary to love thee, nor recompense.

Your love is such I can not fight back,

I pray you to heaven that I reward you.

Then, as long as we live, love, so be it insist

What if we no longer live, we may live ever.


The Rise and Fall Nepstera


With the help of a program written in 1999, 18-year-old computer science student at Northeastern University named Sean Faning unwittingly forever transform the way people use the Internet. The title of his program – Napster. Napster was the name of his teenage nickname because of his hair padguznyh, Napster – a free program for downloading, which could transform individual computers into servers that transmit MP3 music files over the Internet. Instead of a central server that stores all the music files, Napster has worked as an information carrier. Users can log in of Napster, search for artist or song title, and then go directly to the load to another user's hard drive. Slightly more than a year after its initial launch, Napster soon became one of the most well-known and very popular sites in Internet history. At the height of Napster advertised about 60 million users worldwide (Collins, 2002). Few Faning realized that his children will soon become as ubiquitous on the Internet, as e-mail and instant messaging. Not only that Fening understood that follows from this legal experience, which will be created as a result. In the end, what started as a simple program written for friends to share music, soon attracted the attention of not only young people around the world, but the IRA in the recording industry.

The history begins with Nepsteram south of Boston in the city of Brockton, Massachusetts. 17-year-old Calin Fening was a senior high school student in 1980. One night, her older brother threw a party, marking his release in high school, and hired a local band called "MacBeth", to play at a party. It has received a great success: nearly 3,000 people spent at home. Younger brother John walked knee hat to collect money to pay for the group, and by the end of the night sent the pair of solemn money, his first entrepreneurial experience. On the same night, saying Fannings, Colleen was connected to one of the musicians and became pregnant. With the support of his father, Colin kept the child and named him Sean. However, the biological father of Sean, which was the son of one of the richest seven & # 39; ads Massachusetts rescued. In the end, Colin married ex-marines, who rode on a truck for a local bakery. His name was Raymond in September & # 39; e. The pair had four children, and Colin took care of them all, while her husband worked. "Money has always been a pretty big problem," – Sean said in the article "Business Week 2000". He added: "Around this was a lot of stress" (Ante, 2000).

Sean grew up near the public housing projects in Broktane. While September & # 39; er could see its already timid son comes out of chaos within the city that constantly surrounds him: "He went inside himself in depth and said: & # 39; I want to get out of it & #. 39, Despite the fact that it meant losing him a little bit, I would like for him, "- said in September & # 39; er, busy then a nurse's aide. While Sean was getting old, September & # 39; er turned to his brother John's business to help manage his son. As an incentive to the study, for every "A" he brought home from school a school Faning Uncle John and gave him the money. He also bought a nephew of computer & # 39; yuter Apple Macintosh, which in September & # 39; EPA never had any money (Menn, 2003). Life for the family of Sean & # 39; and Faninga consistently deteriorated. Relationships between fathers finally ended when his mother and stepfather had a split. During the year Sean and his siblings were forced to live in a foster home (Ante, 2000). Nevertheless, entrepreneurial uncle John Faning Shawn was always there to offer support to the young nephew. Sean worked in the summer as an intern in the department Internet companies uncle John, NetGames, in the neighboring city of Hull. There Shawn became quite adept at programming from stazhystav studying computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. But, despite the fact that John was fond of his nephew, Sean reluctantly swallowed his uncle with a good work ethic. Sean had difficulties with the implementation of tasks and instead often focused on the games in the video game. "I just started programming, so a lot of time spent just vazhdayuchysya projects and playing," – said Sean (Ante, 2000). However, at that time Sean has learned that will soon make its digital music files MP3 (Maine, 2003).

Soon after graduating from high school in Garvitskay 1998 Shawn enrolled at nearby Northeastern University. What eventually became Nepsteram, it was created in the lounge for freshmen neighbors Faninga room at Northeastern University. After hearing complaints roommate, finding nothing but dead links to MP3 music files with conventional search engines such as Lycos and Yahoo !, as Shawn looked for an easier alternative. His idea was simple. He wanted to combine the usual ease of using the Internet file transfer technology, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) of such a network. Shawn knew he had to be a way of & # 39; to combine the width of the search engines such as Google, with "presence information" systems, such as instant messaging, which know who is signed at any time (Menn, 2003). This combined with the ability of individual users to choose which files you can share with others when you connect to the Napster network. These innovative elements of the program and the Napster network finally eliminated problems associated with dead links. In addition, when all users save music on their own computers, electronic tubes are zasmechvatstsa, when the new system is simply hooked up a couple of people and then gave up their own communications (Menn, 2003). Finally, these elements added feature that allow users to online-Napster to communicate in real-time.

Sean dropped from the North East in January 1999 to devote his full time to perfect his invention. According to a former colleague Tarek Lubanov, he had rarely seen someone so focused. "I do not think people can appreciate how it worked," – said Lubanov (Menn, 2003). He only vaguely remembers the stage in mid-1999, not remembering the exact months, weeks or days. Among the common memories that he left behind this time, bends his Dell laptop, code is written and trickle on Uncle John's couch and the floor. Fearing that the software company has introduced a similar product in front of him, he furiously wrote all the source code for Napster 60 hours (Greenfeld, 2000). In May 1999, Shawn's uncle John has registered the company as Napster. John Faning would retain 70% of the shares of the corporation, and nephew Sean has retained only 30% of the shares of the corporation. Justification uncle John was that Shawn desperately needed a seasoned businessman like him to deal with the nuances of conducting the campaign. (Maine, 2003).

Word spread quickly at the University of Northeastern University, as soon as they have a former classmate Shawn pre-Napster beta program has been prepared, prepared for testing June 1, 1999. Hundreds of college students soon to engage in trade music. This revolutionary new file sharing service quickly became a buzz among Internet writers who frequented the boards of & # 39; ads and chat rooms. Napster has grown and developed rapidly network. Faced with the prospect of unprecedented popularity in such a short period of time, Fannings decided to raise capital for additional bandwidth and servers. The company moved from Hull, Massachusetts in San Mateo, California, to a more spacious location and hired additional workers. Additional capital investments in Napster came just in time. Napster became so popular that in some college campuses appeared clogged servers, the number of students who only use Napster. Schools like Penn State University, in 1999 introduced a moratorium on the use of Napster on campus campuses and on the Internet to try to alleviate the problem. Misfortune Napster has only just begun.

Sinister eventually attracted the attention of the American Association record (RIAA). December 7, 1999 beginning RIAA lawsuit against Napster, which claimed copyright infringement. In addition, the RIAA seeks compensation in the amount of $ 10 000 for each author's song, which is sold by Napster network. The unprecedented trial attracted a lot of media attention and achieved greater popularity of Napster, particularly with college students. Eskalatsyynyya groups of young people flocked to of Napster, to change the music, and the community soon attracted millions of members worldwide. At any time during this period with the Internet & # 39 appeared to millions of users, selling hundreds of thousands of songs.

Later, in the spring of 2000, the heavy metal band Metallica learned that unreleased studio release of their song "I Disappear" was traced and traded Napster. The result was that the single has been heard on many radio stations across America. Metallica was determined to find out how the song became so widespread. The obvious culprit was Napster. A claim of copyright infringement was filed April 13, 2000. After PDNet engage a consulting firm, Metallica soon discovered that the last weekend in April 2000, more than 335 000 individual users Napster sell their music on the Internet. May 3, 2000 Napster was granted 60 000 pages of user names that allegedly traded copyrighted Metallica songs copyright by Napster network. Metallica demanded that Napster ban 335,000 people are trading their copyrighted material, and Napster agreed. Napstera lawyer Laurence Pulgram said: "Napster launched emergency measures to comply with Metallica demands to block hundreds of thousands of supporters from using Napster system." He also added that "of Napster has always stated that it would act in response to copyright owners, and he fulfilled this commitment in good faith." (Dansby & Uhelszki, 2000).

May 5, 2000 Napster was a fatal legal blow. Judge of the US District Court Marilyn Hall Patel ruled that Napster is not entitled to "safe harbor" under the Copyright Act of the Digital Millennium 1992. The original Napster protection RIAA lawsuit was the fact that it was included in Section 1008. This section of the Act expressly states that:

"Under this heading can not be before the & # 39; revealed no claims of copyright infringement (1), based on the manufacture, importation or distribution of a digital audio recording device, digital media audio, an analog recording device, or an analog recording medium, or (2) based on the noncommercial use by the consumer of such a device or medium for making digital musical recordings or analog musical recordings. "

The court found that Napster users were admitted to widespread copyright infringement. In addition, the regulation also states that Napster "is responsible and liable for their actions." Exclusion from the 1008 AHRA section does not apply here, since the law provides immunity only commercial copying, rather than from public distribution. Napster network consisted of more than 20 million people. Thus, whenever the user is logged into the network and a shared hard disk content, it is widely distributed copyrighted material. Section 1008 AHRA As for breeding, not distribution of copyrighted materials. Therefore, according to the court, Napster users infringe copyright infringement, and Napster promoted copyright infringement. Judge Patel granted the RIAA request for a preliminary injunction, and July 26, 2000 it was ordered to close the site.

Meanwhile, Napster appealed the decision of 2 October 2000. Napster appeal was lost February 12, 2001. The offer of $ 1 billion from Napster to go beyond the court with the record industry was soon rejected. March 5, 2001 the Ninth Circuit Court ordered Napster to stop the trade of materials protected by copyright, in its network. As a result, Napster began to use filters to their search engine. Napster system completely blocked any artist name or song copyrighted when searching for users. Popular performers and song titles are no longer displayed in the search results. As a result, smart users Napster filters bypassed, intentionally wrong spelling of artist or song title on the hard disk. Napster users are still able to upload copyright music. As a result, Napster completely shut the entire network in July 2001, to comply fully with the court order. September 24, 2001 Napster settled with copyright owners in the amount of 26 million dollars for the illegal use of music and $ 10 million in advance to cover the coming of the royalty agreement. Napster May 17, 2002 has announced an agreement with Bertelsmann AG of Germany. The agreement would allow "Napsteru" to develop subscribers with a music catalog of Bertelsmann AG, in exchange for something that the German company has stopped the lawsuit against Napster. However, June 3, 2001 Napster filed for bankruptcy in accordance with Section 11. Sale of the company Bertelsmann AG was blocked, and Napster was forced to deprive the rest of its assets.

The current legal incarnation of Napster – a premium service to the subscriber base. Roxio purchased the Napster assets at auction in 2002. According to Wikipedia (2005), a member of which can temporarily rent a song, calculated monthly fee of $ 9.95 USD with the possibility to pay an additional $ 0.80 to 0.90 dollars per permanent download songs. While the new Napster has only a fraction of the old Napster's popularity, others fill the void in the world of peer files sharing. Popular services such as Kazaa, Limewire and Morpheus, are using technology infamous Sean Faninga. Yet in places where the original Napster was a central server, these services may vary by connecting directly to other network users. They are in fact difficult to adjust for copyright infringement, and as it is almost impossible to stop.


4 good reasons to have a roofing contractor roof in winter


If you live in a region of the country, like Massachusetts, with severe winters, you may be wondering why someone would consider replacing the roof in winter. Well, this is not as rare as you might think. Many roofing contractors offer their services all year round, even in cold and snowy regions such as Massachusetts, where I am. Roof house in Massachusetts in the winter roofing contractor's no different than they do in any other time of the year, with a few exceptions, and some contractors roofs and there crews even say that they prefer. First let's deal with what makes the roof more difficult at this time of year and the arguments against the order to install a new roof right now.

The street is too cold to replace the roof.

This argument simply does not contain water. Who can be cold, but who cares? Your roof is not worried. The crew, which sets your roof, anyway. Do not worry, if you guys are doing the installation. If the cold weather & # 39; ie they strongly interfere, they would not set a new roof in the first place, they work in the room. I know a lot of guys who prefer the roof in cold weather & # 39; is, just because it's cold. Try the roof of a black roof in the middle of summer. Let me tell you a lot of fun. In the summer, when the ground 90 degrees, this roofing felt 110 degrees (sometimes).

On my roof too much snow to replace it now.

Here, my friend, is why God made snow shovels. Spoil the snow from the roof is not really difficult. Usually it takes from an hour to half an hour to remove snow, and most contractors are not admitting even to pay for it, as they will be replacing the roof, rather than simply shoveling snow (service, many companies offer roofs in the North East). Crew need to be careful in doing so, to avoid the drop? Of course. However, the crew must be attentive in every respect when it comes to the roof of the house, this is nothing new. These guys – are professionals, and safety should always come first, and should always be the first responsible of the roofing company.

Well, I have just given you two reasons why many believe that the roof can not be done in the winter, and why they are not very good reasons. Now let me give you 4 best reasons that you should think about replacing the roof at this time of year.

1.) Ice platinum, causing leakage.

Winter in Massachusetts experiencing your house and roof in such a way, as opposed to any other time of year. The most common cause of leakage of the roof in the winter period is 39 & # terrible ice dam. Platinum Ice is formed above the cornice house that melted snow flows over the roof, only to freeze in the edge of the roof line. Here in Massachusetts, as well as in other regions with a cold climate, roofing contractors use a product called "ice and water barrier" along with appropriate technologies flicker to prevent ice damage Platinum your home and cause a leak. This technique is performed with the right provides additional protection not less than 3 feet from the edge of the roof. Many of the old roof is not installed "ice and water bar & # 39; er". If your roof is leaking due to ice dams, it may be the perfect time to the roof has been redone properly and ensures that the ice dam will not bother you and your home again.

2) Winter conditions generally worsen a bad roof.

If you had a bad roof before the winter, it is only in a worse condition when spring comes. There are many factors that have a negative impact on your roof in cold weather & # 39; e. I have already discussed the glacial dam, but there are others. In winter, when the temperature varies, it makes your shingles expand and contract, causing twisting and cracking on the old tiles. Let's say that the old shingles curled a little bit, then you get a good wet, heavy snow, and the weight of snow causes some of these twisted tiles to crack. Now you have a new roof leaked. In addition, if the wet, heavy snow then freezes, it may cause more damage to your old tiles. Defrosting and frostbite occurring during the winter time, it is not only bad for the old shingles. Old roof hate the cold winters.

3.) Faster service to your new installation on the roof.

It is a simple fact that the contractors roofing contractors in Massachusetts and roofs in general, winter is not so busy. What this means for the owner of the house that needs a new roof – is that your chosen contractor may be able to install a new roof for a few days after signing the contract, rather than waiting weeks, and sometimes months, when you hold until the spring, summer and autumn months. For many homeowners this reason alone should be a roof in winter.

4.) Save money by taking advantage of the slow time of year for roofs.

Who does not want to save as much money, especially when it comes to expensive home improvement project, such as the overlap of the roof. For the same reasons, you can get faster service by installing a new roof on roofing contractor in the winter, you will probably get a more favorable price than in the warmer months. Most professional installers of the roof give you the same warranty work on the roof, installed in the winter, as well as the roof, installed at any other time of year. Warranty on the material provided by the manufacturer of shingles and will be the same no matter what the season has been installed roof. Roof Contractors want to take the crews, and they will give you a better price, in order to avoid layoffs during the recession of the winter.

So what are you waiting for? If you have a house with an old roof that needs replacing, contact a local roofing contractor and find out for yourself why the roof of house in Massachusetts or any other house in the area – is a viable option in the winter and part of the deal!